Update 'translate/figs-doublenegatives/01.md' #563

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@ -14,47 +14,72 @@ A double negative occurs when a clause has two words that each have a negative m
#### Reason This Is a Translation Issue
Double negatives mean very different things in different languages.
Double negatives mean very different things in different languages.
* In some languages, such as Spanish, a double negative emphasizes the negative. The Spanish sentence, “No vi a nadie,” literally says “I did not see no one.” It has both the word ‘no’ next to the verb and ‘nadie,’ which means “no one.” The two negatives are seen as in agreement with each other, and the sentence means, “I did not see anyone.”
* In some languages, a second negative cancels the first one, creating a positive sentence. So, “He is not unintelligent” means “He is intelligent.”
* In some languages the double negative creates a positive sentence, but it is a weak statement. So, “He is not unintelligent” means, “He is somewhat intelligent.”
* In some languages, such as the languages of the Bible, the double negative can create a positive sentence, and often strengthens the statement. So, “He is not unintelligent” can mean “He is intelligent” or “He is very intelligent.”
* In some languages, such as English, a second negative in a clause cancels the first one, creating a positive sentence. So, “He is not unintelligent” means “He is intelligent.”
* In some languages, such as French and Spanish, two negative words in a clause do not cancel each other to become a positive. The Spanish sentence, “No vi a nadie,” literally says “I did not see no one.” It has both the word ‘no’ next to the verb and ‘nadie,’ which means “no one.” The two negatives are seen as in agreement with each other, and the sentence means, “I did not see anyone.”
* In some languages, a double negative creates a stronger negative statement.
* In some languages, a double negative creates a positive sentence, but it is a weak statement. So, “He is not unintelligent” means, “He is somewhat intelligent.”
* In some languages, including the languages of the Bible, a double negative can produce a stronger positive meaning than a simple positive statement. So, “He is not unintelligent” can mean “He is very intelligent.” In this case, the double negative is actually the figure of speech called [litotes](../figs-doublenegatives/01.md).
To translate sentences with double negatives accurately and clearly in your language, you need to know what a double negative means in the Bible and how to express the same idea in your language.
Biblical Greek can do all of the above. So to translate sentences with double negatives accurately and clearly in your language, you need to know what each double negative means in the Bible and how to express the same idea in your language.
### Examples From the Bible
The Greek of John 15:5 says:
> χωρὶς ἐμοῦ **οὐ** δύνασθε ποιεῖν **οὐδέν** <br>
Without me **not** you can do **nothing** <br>
We cannot reproduce this double negative in the English ULT because in English, a second negative in a clause cancels the first one. In English, and perhaps in your language, we need to choose only one of the negatives and say either:
Without me, you can do **nothing**.<br>
or:<br>
Without me, you **cannot** do anything.
> … in order **not** to be **unfruitful**. (Titus 3:14b ULT)
This means “so that they will be fruitful.”
> All things were made through him and **without** him there was **not** one thing made that has been made. (John 1:3 ULT)
This means “in order to be fruitful.”
> A prophet is **not without** honor (Mark 6:4 ULT)
By using a double negative, John emphasized that the Son of God created absolutely everything. The double negative makes a stronger statement than the simple positive.
This means "a prophet is honored."
> I do **not** want you to be **ignorant**. (1 Corinthians 12:1)
This means "I want you to be knowledgeable."
### Translation Strategies
If double negatives are natural and are used to express the positive in your language, consider using them. Otherwise, you could consider these strategies:
If the way that the double negative is used in the Bible is natural and has the same meaning as in your language, consider using it in the same way. Otherwise, you could consider these strategies:
(1) If the purpose of a double negative in the Bible is simply to make a positive statement, and if it would not do that in your language, remove the two negatives so that it is positive.<br>
(2) If the purpose of a double negative in the Bible is to make a strong positive statement, and if it would not do that in your language, remove the two negatives and put in a strengthening word or phrase such as “very” or “surely” or “absolutely.”
(1) If the purpose of a double negative in the Bible is to make a positive statement, and if it would not do that in your language, remove the two negatives so that it is positive.<br>
(2) If the purpose of a double negative in the Bible is to make a negative statement, and if it would not do that in your language, remove one of the two negatives.<br>
(3) If the purpose of a double negative in the Bible is to make a stronger negative statement, and if it would not do that in your language, remove one of the two negatives and add a strengthening word.
### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied
(1) If the purpose of a double negative in the Bible is simply to make a positive statement, and if it would not do that in your language, remove the two negatives so that it is positive.
(1) If the purpose of a double negative in the Bible is to make a positive statement, and if it would not do that in your language, remove the two negatives so that it is positive.
> For we do **not** have a high priest who can**not** feel sympathy for our weaknesses. (Hebrews 4:15a ULT)
> For we do **not** have a high priest who **cannot** feel sympathy for our weaknesses. (Hebrews 4:15a ULT)
> > “For we have a high priest who can feel sympathy for our weaknesses.”
> … in order **not** to be **unfruitful**. (Titus 3:14b ULT)
> > “… so that they may be fruitful.”
(2) If the purpose of a double negative in the Bible is to make a strong positive statement, and if it would not do that in your language, remove the two negatives and put in a strengthening word or phrase such as “very” or “surely” or “absolutely.
(2) If the purpose of a double negative in the Bible is to make a negative statement, and if it would not do that in your language, remove one of the two negatives.
> Be sure of this—the wicked person will **not** go **un**punished. (Proverbs 11:21a ULT)
>
> > “Be sure of this—wicked people will **certainly** be punished.”
>
> All things were made through him and **without** him there was **not** one thing made that has been made. (John 1:3 ULT)
>
> > “All things were made through him. He made **absolutely** everything that has been made.”
> χωρὶς ἐμοῦ **οὐ** δύνασθε ποιεῖν **οὐδέν** <br>
Without me **not** you can do **nothing** (John 15:5)<br>
> > Without me, you can do **nothing**.<br>
or:<br>
> > Without me, you **cannot** do anything.
(3) If the purpose of a double negative in the Bible is to make a stronger negative statement, and if it would not do that in your language, remove one of the two negatives and add a strengthening word.
> ...ἰῶτα ἓν ἢ μία κεραία **οὐ μὴ** παρέλθῃ ἀπὸ τοῦ νόμου (Matthew 5:18)<br>
...iota one or one serif **not not** may pass away from the law
> > ...**not even** one iota or one serif may pass away from the law<br>
or:<br>
> > ...**certainly no** iota or serif may pass away from the law
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