justplainjane47-tc-create-1 #394

Merged
richmahn merged 173 commits from justplainjane47-tc-create-1 into master 2 years ago
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      checking/alignment-tool/sub-title.md
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      checking/goal-checking/sub-title.md
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      translate/bita-animals/01.md
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      translate/bita-part1/01.md
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      translate/choose-style/01.md
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      translate/choose-team/01.md
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      translate/figs-123person/01.md
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      translate/figs-abstractnouns/01.md
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      translate/figs-apostrophe/01.md
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      translate/figs-apostrophe/sub-title.md
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      translate/figs-cometaphor/01.md
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      translate/figs-declarative/01.md
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      translate/figs-doublenegatives/01.md
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      translate/figs-euphemism/sub-title.md
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      translate/figs-events/sub-title.md
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      translate/figs-exclusive/sub-title.md
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      translate/figs-grammar/sub-title.md
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      translate/figs-inclusive/sub-title.md
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      translate/figs-informremind/sub-title.md
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      translate/figs-possession/sub-title.md
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      translate/figs-pronouns/sub-title.md
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      translate/figs-youformal/sub-title.md
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      translate/grammar-connect-logic-goal/01.md
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      translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases/sub-title.md
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      translate/resources-fofs/sub-title.md
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      translate/translate-discover/sub-title.md
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      translate/translate-dynamic/sub-title.md
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      translate/translate-levels/01.md
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@ -1 +1 @@
How do I use the Alignment Tool in translationCore to do Alignment Checking?
How do I use the Alignment Tool in translationCore to do alignment checking?

@ -1 +1 @@
What is the Goal of Checking?
What is the goal of checking?

@ -1 +1 @@
What are the steps I should follow to check a translation as a Quality Checker?
What are the steps that I, as a Quality Checker, should follow to check a translation?

@ -17,7 +17,7 @@ The horn is King David’s military strength.
This is because some birds are easily trapped.
> I have been hunted like a **bird** by those who were my enemies; they hunted me without a reason. (Lamentations 3:52 ULT)
>
> Save yourself like a gazelle from the hand of the hunter,
> like a **bird** from the hand of the fowler. (Proverbs 6:5 ULT)
@ -31,10 +31,10 @@ A fowler is a person who catches birds, and a snare is a small trap.
In Habakkuk and Hosea, Israel’s enemies who would come and attack them were compared to an eagle.
>  Their horsemen come from a great distance—they fly like an **eagle** hurrying to eat! (Habakkuk 1:8 ULT)
>
> An **eagle** is coming over the house of Yahweh.
> . . . Israel has rejected what is good,
> and the enemy will pursue him. (Hosea 8:1,3 ULT)
> Israel has rejected what is good,
> and the enemy will pursue him. (Hosea 8:1, 3 ULT)
In Isaiah, God called a certain foreign king a bird of prey because he would come quickly and attack Israel’s enemies.
@ -85,9 +85,9 @@ In Matthew, John the Baptist called the religious leaders poisonous snakes becau
#### SHEEP or a FLOCK OF SHEEP represents people who need to be led or are in danger
> My people have been a lost **flock**. Their shepherds have led them astray in the mountains. (Jeremiah 50:6 ULT)
>
> He led his own people out like **sheep** and guided them through the wilderness like a **flock**. (Psalm 78:52 ULT)
>
> Israel is a **sheep** scattered and driven away by lions. First the king of Assyria devoured him;
> then after this, Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon broke his bones. (Jeremiah 50:17 ULT)

@ -13,10 +13,9 @@ Some common [metonymies](../figs-metonymy/01.md) and [metaphors](../figs-metapho
#### The GROUND represents people’s hearts (inner being)
> For Yahweh says this to each person in Judah and Jerusalem: ‘Plow your own **ground**,
> and do not sow among thorns. (Jeremiah 4:3 ULT)
> For Yahweh says this to each person in Judah and Jerusalem: ‘Plow your own **ground**, and do not sow among thorns. (Jeremiah 4:3 ULT)
>
> When anyone hears the word of the kingdom but does not understand it . . . This is the seed that was sown **beside the road**. That which was sown on **rocky ground** is the person who hears the word and immediately receives it with joy . . . That which was sown **among the thorn plants**, this is the person who hears the word, but the cares of the world and the deceitfulness of riches choke the word . . . That which was sown on the **good soil**, this is the person who hears the word and understands it. (Matthew 13:19-23 ULT)
> When anyone hears the word of the kingdom but does not understand it This is the seed that was sown **beside the road**. That which was sown on **rocky ground** is the person who hears the word and immediately receives it with joy That which was sown **among the thorn plants**, this is the person who hears the word, but the cares of the world and the deceitfulness of riches choke the wordThat which was sown on the **good soil**, this is the person who hears the word and understands it. (Matthew 13:19-23 ULT)
>
> Break up your **unplowed ground**,
> for it is time to seek Yahweh. Hosea 10:12 ULT)
@ -32,7 +31,7 @@ Some common [metonymies](../figs-metonymy/01.md) and [metaphors](../figs-metapho
After farmers harvest wheat and other types of grain, they bring them to a **threshing floor**, a flat place with hard ground, and have oxen pull heavy wheeled carts or sleds without wheels over the grain to **thresh** it, to separate the usable grains from the useless chaff. Then they take large forks and **winnow** the threshed grain by throwing it up in the air so the wind can carry off the chaff (waste) while the grains fall back to the threshing floor, where they can be gathered and used for food. (See "thresh" and "winnow" pages in [unfoldingWord® Translation Words](http://ufw.io/tw/) for help translating thresh and winnow.)
> So I will **winnow** them with a pitchfork at the gates of the land. I will bereave them. I will destroy my people since they will not turn from their ways. (Jeremiah 15:7 ULT)
>
> His **winnowing fork** is in his hand to thoroughly clear off his **threshing floor** and to gather the wheat into his storehouse. But he will burn up the chaff with unquenchable fire. (Luke 3:17 ULT)
#### GRAFTING represents God’s allowing the Gentiles to become his people
@ -41,8 +40,8 @@ After farmers harvest wheat and other types of grain, they bring them to a **thr
#### RAIN represents God’s gifts to his people
> . . . he comes and **rains** righteousness on you. (Hosea 10:12b ULT)
> he comes and **rains** righteousness on you. (Hosea 10:12b ULT)
>
> For the land that drinks in the **rain** that often comes on it, and that produces plants useful to those for whom the land was also cultivated, receives a blessing from God. But land that bears thorns and thistles is worthless and is about to be cursed. Its end is to be burned. (Hebrews 6:7-8 ULT)
>
> So be patient, brothers, until the Lord’s coming. See, the farmer awaits the valuable harvest from the ground. He is patiently waiting for it, until it receives the early and late **rains**. (James 5:7 ULT)

@ -1 +1 @@
What are some examples in the Bible of images taken from farming?
What are some examples of images taken from farming that are used as images in the Bible?

@ -5,27 +5,23 @@ Some common [metonymies](../figs-metonymy/01.md) and [metaphors](../figs-metapho
> Now you are the **body** of Christ and individually members of it. (1 Corinthians 12:27 ULT)
>
> Instead, speaking the truth in love, let us grow up in all things into him who is the head, even Christ, from whom the whole **body,** being joined and held together by every supporting ligament, according to the working in measure of each individual part, causes the growth of the **body** for building up itself in love.
>
>
>
>
In these verses, the body of Christ represents the group of people who follow Christ.
#### A BROTHER represents a person’s relatives, associates, or peers
> For Mordecai the Jew was second to the King Ahasuerus, and great among the Jews, and favored by the multitude of his **brothers** . . . (Esther 10:3a ULT)
> For Mordecai the Jew was second to the King Ahasuerus, and great among the Jews, and favored by the multitude of his **brothers **… (Esther 10:3a ULT)
#### A DAUGHTER represents a village located near a town or city
#### A MOTHER represents a town or city with villages surrounding it
> And for the villages in their fields, some from the sons of Judah dwelt: in Kiriath Arba and its daughters; and in Dibon and its daughters; and in Jekabzeel and its villages . . . (Nehemiah 11:25 ULT)
> And for the villages in their fields, some from the sons of Judah dwelt: in Kiriath Arba and its daughters; and in Dibon and its daughters; and in Jekabzeel and its villages (Nehemiah 11:25 ULT)
#### The FACE represents someone’s presence, sight, knowledge, perception, attention, or judgment
> Then Esther repeated her action, and she spoke before the **face** of the king. (Esther 8:3a ULT)
>
> Why do you hide your **face** and forget our affliction and our oppression? (Psalm 44:24 ULT)
To hide one’s face from someone means to ignore him.
@ -35,29 +31,30 @@ To hide one’s face from someone means to ignore him.
If someone seeks another person’s face, he hopes that the person will pay attention to him.
> Do you not fear me—this is Yahweh’s declaration—or tremble before my **face**? (Jeremiah 5:22 ULT)
>
> Every man of the house of Israel who takes his idols into his heart, or who puts the stumbling block of his iniquity before his **face**, and who then comes to a prophet—I, Yahweh, will answer him according to the number of his idols. (Ezekiel 14:4 ULT)
To put something before one’s face is to look at it intently or pay attention to it.
#### The FACE represents the front of something
> So Hathak went out to Mordecai, to the open place of the city that was before the **face** of the gate of the king. (Esther 4:6 ULT)
> So Hathak went out to Mordecai, to the open place of the city that was before the **face** of the gate of the king. (Esther 4:6 ULT)
>
> She fell before the **face** of his feet and wept and implored favor from him to take away the evil of Haman the Agagite and his plot that he had plotted against the Jews. (Esther 8:3b ULT)
#### The FACE represents the surface of something
> The famine was over all **the face** of the whole land. (Genesis 41:56a ULT)
>
> He covers **the face** of the moon and spreads his clouds on it. (Job 26:9 ULT)
#### A FATHER represents someone’s ancestor(s)
#### A SON represents someone’s descendant(s)
>  But they acted presumptuously, they and our **fathers**. And they stiffened their neck and did not listen to your commandments. (Nehemiah 9:16 ULT)
> We have not listened to your servants the prophets who spoke in your name to our kings, our leaders, our **fathers**, and to all the people of the land. To you, Lord, belongs righteousness . . ." (Daniel 9:6-7a ULT)
>
> We have not listened to your servants the prophets who spoke in your name to our kings, our leaders, our **fathers**, and to all the people of the land. To you, Lord, belongs righteousness " (Daniel 9:6-7a ULT)
#### The HAND represents someone’s power, control, agency, or action
@ -80,22 +77,22 @@ To put something before one’s face is to look at it intently or pay attention
#### The HEART represents the action of thinking or feeling
> And Boaz ate and drank, and his **heart** was good, and he went to lie down at the end of the pile of grain. (Ruth 3:7a ULT)
> On the seventh day, when the **heart** of the king was pleased by the wine… (Esther 1:10a ULT)
>
> On the seventh day, when the **heart** of the king was pleased by the wine… (Esther 1:10a ULT)
#### The HEART represents someone’s attitude
> Then the king Ahasuerus spoke and said to Esther the queen, “Who is he, this man? Where is this man, he whose **heart** is full to do thus?” (Esther 7:5 ULT)
> Then the king Ahasuerus spoke and said to Esther the queen, “Who is he, this man? Where is this man, he whose **heart** is full to do thus?” (Esther 7:5 ULT)
In this context, having a full heart means to be proud or arrogant.
#### The EYES represent sight, knowledge, perception, attention, or judgment
> For the matter of the queen will go out to all the women, in order to make their husbands despised in their **eyes** . . . (Esther 1:17a ULT)
> For the matter of the queen will go out to all the women, in order to make their husbands despised in their **eyes**  (Esther 1:17a ULT)
#### The EYES represent someone’s attitude
> . . . but you bring down those with **proud, uplifted eyes**! (Psalm 18:27b ULT)
> but you bring down those with **proud, uplifted eyes**! (Psalm 18:27b ULT)
Uplifted eyes show that a person is proud.
@ -120,12 +117,9 @@ To serve God is to be motivated by God. To serve money is to be motivated by mon
> A fool’s **mouth** is his ruin. (Proverbs 18:7 ULT)
>
> I would strengthen you with my mouth. (Job 16:5 ULT)
>
>
In these examples the mouth refers to what a person says.
#### A NAME represents the person who has that name
> May your God make **the name of Solomon** better than your name, and make his throne greater than your throne.” (1 Kings 1:47 ULT)
@ -144,7 +138,7 @@ To fear someone’s name is to honor him.
To profane God’s name is to profane his reputation, that is, to profane how people think about him.
> For I will make **my great name** holy, which you have profaned among the nations…. (Ezekiel 36:23 ULT)
> For I will make **my great name** holy, which you have profaned among the nations  (Ezekiel 36:23 ULT)
To make God’s name holy is to cause people to see that God is holy.
@ -158,19 +152,19 @@ The fact that the men said they heard a report about Yahweh shows that “becaus
#### The NOSE represents anger
> Then . . . the foundations of the world were laid bare at your rebuke, Yahweh, at the blast of the breath of **your nostrils**. (Psalms 18:15 ULT)
> Then the foundations of the world were laid bare at your rebuke, Yahweh, at the blast of the breath of **your nostrils**. (Psalms 18:15 ULT)
>
> By the blast of **your nostrils** the waters were piled up. (Exodus 15:8a ULT)
>
> Smoke went up from out of **his nostrils**, and blazing fire came out of his mouth. (2 Samuel 22:9a ULT)
>
> Yahweh, Yahweh, God is merciful and gracious, **slow to anger . . .** (Exodus 34:6a ULT)
> Yahweh, Yahweh, God is merciful and gracious, **slow to anger ** (Exodus 34:6a ULT)
In Hebrew, a hot nose represents anger, including such images as a blast of air or smoke coming from someone’s nostrils. The opposite of a “hot nose” is a “long nose.” The phrase “slow to anger” in Hebrew literally means “long of nose.” A long nose represents patience, meaning that it takes a long time for that person’s nose to get hot.
#### A SON represents the offspring of an animal(s)
> And he sent letters (by the hand of runners on horses, riders of the royal pack horses, sons of the mares) . . . (Esther 8:10a ULT)
> And he sent letters (by the hand of runners on horses, riders of the royal pack horses, sons of the mares) (Esther 8:10a ULT)
#### The SON OF SOMETHING represents something shares the qualities of another thing
@ -193,4 +187,4 @@ Children of wrath here are people with whom God is very angry.
### Translation Strategies
See the Translations Strategies on [Biblical Imagery - Common Patterns](../bita-part1/01.md).
See the Translations Strategies on [Biblical Imagery - Common Patterns](../bita-part1/01.md).

@ -4,19 +4,16 @@ Some common [metonymies](../figs-metonymy/01.md) and [metaphors](../figs-metapho
> Yahweh supports all who are falling and raises up all those who are **bent over**. (Psalm 145:14 ULT)
#### Having BIRTH PAINS mean suffering that is necessary to achieve a new condition
> **Be in pain and labor to give birth**, daughter of Zion, like a **woman in labor**.
> For now you will go out of the city, live in the field, and go to Babylon.
> There you will be rescued.
> There Yahweh will rescue you from the hand of your enemies. (Micah 4:10 ULT)
> There you will be rescued. There Yahweh will rescue you from the hand of your enemies. (Micah 4:10 ULT)
>
> For nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom. There will be famines and earthquakes in various places. But all these things are only the beginning of **birth pains**. (Matthew 24:7-8 ULT)
>
> My little children, again I am in the **pains of childbirth** for you until Christ is formed in you.(Galatians 4:19 ULT)
#### Being CALLED SOMETHING means being that thing
> The Holy One of Israel is your Redeemer; he **is called** the God of the whole earth. (Isaiah 54:5b ULT)
@ -27,7 +24,7 @@ This is because he actually is the God of the whole earth.
This is because he actually is discerning.
> He will . . .**be called** the Son of the Most High. (Luke 1:32a ULT)
> He will  **be called** the Son of the Most High. (Luke 1:32a ULT)
This is because he actually is the Son of the Most High.
@ -39,23 +36,21 @@ This is because he actually is the Son of God.
This is because he actually will be dedicated to the Lord.
#### Being CLEAN means being acceptable for God’s purposes
> Noah built an altar to Yahweh. He took some of the **clean** animals and some of the **clean** birds, and offered burnt offerings on the altar. Yahweh smelled the pleasing aroma. (Genesis 8:20 ULT)
>
> The priest will examine him again on the seventh day to see if the disease is better and has not spread farther in the skin. If it has not, then the priest will pronounce him **clean**. It is a rash. He must wash his clothes, and then he is **clean**. (Leviticus 13:6 ULT)
#### CLEANSING or PURIFYING means making something acceptable for God’s purposes
> He must go out to the altar that is before Yahweh and make atonement for it, and he must take some of the bull’s blood and some of the goat’s blood and put it on the horns of the altar all around. He must sprinkle some of the blood on it with his finger seven times to **cleanse** it and dedicate it to Yahweh, away from the **unclean** actions of the people of Israel. (Leviticus 16:18-19 ULT)
> This is because on this day atonement will be made for you, to **cleanse** you from all your sins so you will be **clean** before Yahweh. (Leviticus 16:30 ULT)
>
> This is because on this day atonement will be made for you, to **cleanse** you from all your sins so you will be **clean** before Yahweh. (Leviticus 16:30 ULT)
#### COMING or STANDING BEFORE SOMEONE means serving him
> How blessed are your wives, and how blessed are your servants who constantly **stand before you**, because they hear your wisdom.  (1 Kings 10:8 ULT)
> How blessed are your wives, and how blessed are your servants who constantly **stand before you**, because they hear your wisdom.  (1 Kings 10:8 ULT)
>
> Covenant faithfulness and trustworthiness **come before you**. (Psalm 89:14b ULT)
@ -67,86 +62,72 @@ Covenant faithfulness and trustworthiness are also personified here. (See [Perso
>
> Whoever does not humble himself on that day must be **cut off from his people**. Whoever does any work on that day, **I, Yahweh, will destroy him** from among his people. (Leviticus 23:29-30 ULT)
>
> But he was **cut off** from the land of the living . . . (Isaiah 53:8b ULT)
> But he was **cut off** from the land of the living (Isaiah 53:8b ULT)
#### Being CUT OFF from something means being separated from it
#### Being CUT OFF from something means being sepa rated from it
> Uzziah, the king, was a leper to the day of his death, and lived in a separate house, since he was a leper; for he was **cut off from the house of Yahweh.** (2 Chronicles 26:21a ULT)
#### DRINKING WINE means being judged
Too much wine makes a person weak so that he staggers. So too, when God judges people, they become weak and stagger. So the idea of wine is used to represent God’s judgment.
> You have made your people see difficult things; you have made us **drink the wine of staggering**. (Psalm 60:3 ULT)
>
>
> But God is the judge;
> he brings down and he lifts up.
> For Yahweh holds in his hand a cup of **foaming wine**,
> which is mixed with spices, and pours it out.
> Surely all the wicked of the earth will **drink it** to the last drop. (Psalm 75:7-8 ULT)
>
> He also will drink from the **wine** of the wrath of God, the **wine** that has been poured undiluted into the cup of his anger. (Revelation 14:10a ULT)
#### EATING UP means defeating, destroying, or harming
>
>
> God brings him out of Egypt.
> with strength like a wild ox.
> **He will eat up the nations who fight against him**.
> He will break their bones to pieces.
> He will shoot them with his arrows. (Numbers 24:8 ULT)
Another word for “eat up” is devour.
> Therefore as **the tongue of fire devours stubble**, and as the dry grass goes down in flame,
> so their root will rot, and their blossom will blow away like dust. (Isaiah 5:24 ULT)
> Therefore as **the tongue of fire devours stubble**, and as the dry grass goes down in flame, so their root will rot, and their blossom will blow away like dust. (Isaiah 5:24 ULT)
>
> Therefore Yahweh will raise up against him Rezin, his adversary, and will stir up his enemies,
> the Arameans on the east, and the Philistines on the west.
> Therefore Yahweh will raise up against him Rezin, his adversary, and will stir up his enemies, the Arameans on the east, and the Philistines on the west.
> **They will devour Israel with open mouth**. (Isaiah 9:11-12 ULT)
>
> I will make my arrows drunk with blood,
> and **my sword will devour flesh** with the blood of the killed and the captives,
> and from the heads of the leaders of the enemy. (Deuteronomy 32:42 ULT)
> I will make my arrows drunk with blood, and **my sword will devour flesh** with the blood of the killed and the captives, and from the heads of the leaders of the enemy. (Deuteronomy 32:42 ULT)
#### FALLING UPON or BEING UPON means affecting
> Yahweh God caused a deep sleep to **fall upon** the man, so the man slept. (Genesis 2:21a ULT)
>
> Will not his majesty terrify you, and the dread of him fall upon you? (Job 13:11 ULT)
> Then the Spirit of Yahweh **fell on me** and he said for me to say . . . (Ezekiel 11:5a ULT)
>
> Then the Spirit of Yahweh **fell on me** and he said for me to say … (Exekiel 11:5a ULT)
>
> Now look, the hand of the Lord **is upon you**, and you will become blind. (Acts 13:11a ULT)
#### FOLLOWING SOMEONE means being loyal to him
> Thus they forsook Yahweh, the God of their fathers, the one who brought them out of the land of Egypt. **They went after** other gods from the gods of the people groups who were around them, and they bowed down to them. They provoked Yahweh to anger. They forsook Yahweh and they served the Baal and the Ashtoreths.  (Judges 2:12-13 ULT)
> Thus they forsook Yahweh, the God of their fathers, the one who brought them out of the land of Egypt. **They went after** other gods from the gods of the people groups who were around them, and they bowed down to them. They provoked Yahweh to anger. They forsook Yahweh and they served the Baal and the Ashtoreths. (Judges 2:12-13 ULT)
>
> For Solomon **followed** Ashtoreth, the goddess of the Sidonians, and **he followed** Milcom, the disgusting idol of the Ammonites. (1 Kings 11:5 ULT)
>
> Not one of them who despised me will see it, except for my servant Caleb, because he had another spirit. **He has followed me fully**; I will bring him into the land which he went to examine. His descendants will possess it. (Numbers 14:23-24 ULT)
#### GOING BEFORE, ACCOMPANYING, or FOLLOWING A KING WITH HIS OTHER ATTENDANTS means serving him
> See, his reward is **with him**, and his recompense is **going before him**. (Isaiah 62:11b ULT)
>
> Righteousness will **go before him** and make a way for his footsteps. (Psalm 85:13 ULT)
#### INHERITING means permanently possessing something
####INHERITING means permanently possessing something
#### an INHERITANCE means something that a person permanently possesses
#### an HEIR means someone who permanently possesses something
#### an HEIR means someone who permanently possesses something
> Then the King will say to those on his right hand, “Come, you who have been blessed by my Father, **inherit** the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world.” (Matthew 25:34)
@ -164,10 +145,8 @@ The mountain where God will be worshiped is viewed as his permanent possession.
Moses asks God to still accept the people of Israel as his special possession, that is, as the people permanently belonging to him.
> . . . the richness of the glory of his **inheritance** in the saints . . .   (Ephesians 1:18b ULT)
The wonderful things that God will give all who are set apart for him are viewed as their permanent possessions.
> …the richness of the glory of his **inheritance** in the saints … (Ephesians 1:18b ULT) The wonderful things that God will give all who are set apart for him are viewed as their permanent possessions.
>
> For the promise to Abraham and to his descendants that he would be **heir** of the world did not come through the law but through the righteousness of faith. (Romans 4:13 ULT)
The promise was that Abraham and his descendants would permanently possess the entire world.
@ -176,102 +155,96 @@ The promise was that Abraham and his descendants would permanently possess the e
God’s Son will receive all things as a permanent possession.
> By faith Noah . . .  condemned the world and became an heir of the righteousness that is according to faith. (Hebrews 11:7 ULT)
> By faith Noah condemned the world and became an heir of the righteousness that is according to faith. (Hebrews 11:7 ULT)
Noah received righteousness as a permanent possession.
#### LIFTING means promoting or giving someone higher status or importance
> Then Haman recounted to them the glory of his wealth, and the multitude of his sons, and all about how the king had made him great and how he had **lifted** him over the officials and administrators of the king. (Esther 5:11 ULT)
> Then Haman recounted to them the glory of his wealth, and the multitude of his sons, and all about how the king had made him great and how he had **lifted** him over the officials and administrators of the king. (Esther 5:11 ULT)
#### LYING DOWN or SLEEPING means dying or being dead
> When your days are fulfilled and you **lie down with your fathers**, I will raise up a descendant after you, (2 Samuel 7:12a ULT)
> ‘Are you really more beautiful than anyone else? Go down and **lie down** with the uncircumcised.’
> They will fall among those who were killed by the sword. The sword has been drawn! She has been given to the sword; they will seize her and her multitudes. (Ezekiel 32:19-20 ULT)
>
> ‘Are you really more beautiful than anyone else? Go down and **lie down** with the uncircumcised.’ They will fall among those who were killed by the sword. The sword has been drawn! She has been given to the sword; they will seize her and her multitudes. (Ezekiel 32:19-20 ULT)
#### REIGNING or RULING means controlling
> This happened so that, as sin **ruled** in death, even so grace might **rule** through righteousness for everlasting life through Jesus Christ our Lord. (Romans 5:21 ULT)
>
> Therefore do not let sin **rule** in your mortal body in order that you obey its lusts. (Romans 6:12 ULT)
#### RESTING or a RESTING PLACE means a safe and beneficial situation
> Then Naomi, her mother-in-law, said to her, “My daughter, should I not seek a **resting place** for you, that will be good for you? (Ruth 3:1 ULT)
>
> Therefore I vowed in my anger that they would never enter into my **resting place**. (Psalm 95:11 ULT)
> This is my **resting place** forever. I will live here, for I desire her [Zion]. (Psalm 132:14 ULT)
>
> This is my **resting place** forever. I will live here, for I desire her \[Zion\]. (Psalm 132:14 ULT)
>
> The nations will seek him out, and his **resting place** will be glorious. (Isaiah 11:10b ULT)
#### RISING or STANDING UP means doing or taking action
> **Rise up** for our help and redeem us for the sake of your covenant faithfulness. (Psalm 44:26 ULT)
>
> **Get up**, go to Nineveh, the great city, and call out against it, because their wickedness has risen up before my face. (Jonah 1:2 ULT)
#### SEEING means knowledge, perception, notice, attention, or judgment
> Why have I found favor **in your eyes** that you should take notice of me . . . (Ruth 2:10b ULT)
> Why have I found favor **in your eyes** that you should take notice of me(Ruth 2:10b ULT)
>
> And the young woman was pleasing **in his eyes**, and she lifted kindness before his face. (Esther 2:9a ULT)
>
> The **eyes** of Yahweh are everywhere, **keeping watch** over the evil and the good. (Proverbs 15:3 ULT)
> But Haman remained in order to seek for his life from Esther the queen, for he **saw** that evil was determined against him by the king. (Esther 7:7b ULT)
>
> But Haman remained in order to seek for his life from Esther the queen, for he **saw** that evil was determined against him by the king. (Esther 7:7b ULT)
#### SEEKING means pleading or begging
> But Haman remained in order to **seek** for his life from Esther the queen, for he saw that evil was determined against him by the king. (Esther 7:7b ULT)
> But Haman remained in order to **seek** for his life from Esther the queen, for he saw that evil was determined against him by the king. (Esther 7:7b ULT)
#### SEEKING means trying to do something or making an effort to do something
> For Mordecai the Jew was second to the King Ahasuerus, and great among the Jews, and favored by the multitude of his brothers, **seeking** good for his people and speaking peace to all its seed. (Esther 10:3 ULT)
> For Mordecai the Jew was second to the King Ahasuerus, and great among the Jews, and favored by the multitude of his brothers, **seeking** good for his people and speaking peace to all its seed. (Esther 10:3 ULT)
#### SELLING means handing over to someone’s control
#### BUYING represents removing from someone’s control
> . . . [Yahweh] **sold** [the Israelites] into the hand of Cushan-Rishathaim, the king of Aram
Naharaim. (Judges 3:8a ULT)
#### BUYING represents removing from someone’s control
> … \[Yahweh\] **sold** \[the Israelites\] into the hand of Cushan-Rishathaim, the king of Aram Naharaim. (Judges 3:8a ULT)
#### SITTING means reigning, ruling, or judging
> A throne will be established in covenant faithfulness, and one from David’s tent will faithfully **sit** there. (Isaiah 16:5a ULT)
> . . . in those days, as the king Ahasuerus **sat** on his royal throne, which was in Susa the citadel: (Esther 1:2 ULT)
>
> … in those days, as the king Ahasuerus **sat** on his royal throne, which was in Susa the citadel: (Esther 1:2 ULT)
#### STANDING means defending or successfully resisting
> So the wicked will not **stand** in the judgment, nor sinners in the assembly of the righteous. (Psalm 1:5 ULT)
> that the king gave to the Jews who were in every city by city: to gather and to **stand** for their life, to annihilate, and to slaughter, and to destroy any strength of a people or province that would attack them, children and women, and plunder their spoil; (Esther 8:11 ULT)
>
> that the king gave to the Jews who were in every city by city: to gather and to **stand** for their life, to annihilate, and to slaughter, and to destroy any strength of a people or province that would attack them, children and women, and plunder their spoil; (Esther 8:11 ULT)
#### TURNING or TURNING OVER means changing
> . . . as the days when the Jews rested on them from their enemies, and as the month when it had **turned** for them from sorrow into joy and from mourning into a good day, in order to make them days of feasting and rejoicing and sending of gifts, a man to his friend, and gifts to the needy. (Esther 9:22 ULT)
> as the days when the Jews rested on them from their enemies, and as the month when it had **turned** for them from sorrow into joy and from mourning into a good day, in order to make them days of feasting and rejoicing and sending of gifts, a man to his friend, and gifts to the needy. (Esther 9:22 ULT)
#### Being UNCLEAN means not being acceptable for God’s purposes
> You may eat any animal that has a split hoof and that also chews the cud. However, some animals either chew the cud or have a split hoof, and **you must not eat them**, animals such as the camel, because it chews the cud but does not have a split hoof. So the camel is **unclean** for you. (Leviticus 11:3-4 ULT)
>
> And if any of them dies and falls on anything, that thing will be **unclean**, whether it is made of wood, cloth, leather, or sackcloth. Whatever it is and whatever it is used for, it must be put into water; it will be **unclean** until evening. Then it will be **clean**. (Leviticus 11:32 ULT)
#### WALKING means behaving
#### a PATH or a WAY means a person’s behavior
> Blessed is the man who does not **walk** in the advice of the wicked. (Psalm 1:1a ULT)
>
> For Yahweh approves of the **way** of the righteous. (Psalm 1:6a ULT)
> Turn from me the **path** of deceit. (Psalm 119:29a ULT)
> I will run in the **path** of your commandments. (Psalm 119:32a ULT)
>
> Turn from me the **path** of deceit. (Psalm 119:29a ULT)
>
> I will run in the **path** of your commandments. (Psalm 119:32a ULT)

@ -2,71 +2,68 @@ Some common [metonymies](../figs-metonymy/01.md) and [metaphors](../figs-metapho
#### BRONZE represents strength
> He trains…my arms to bend a bow of **bronze**. (Psalm 18:34 ULT)
> He trains … my arms to bend a bow of **bronze**. (Psalm 18:34 ULT)
#### CHAINS represent control
> Let us tear off the **shackles** they put on us and throw off their **chains**. Psalm 2:3
> "Let us tear off the **shackles** they put on us and throw off their **chains**." Psalm 2:3
#### CLOTHING represents moral or emotional qualities (attitudes, spirit, life)
> It is God who puts strength on me like a **belt**. (Psalm 18:32 ULT)
> Righteousness will be the **belt of his waist**, and faithfulness the **belt around his hips**. (Isaiah 11:5 ULT)
> It is God who puts strength on me like a **belt**. (Psalm 18:32a ULT)
>
> Righteousness will be the **belt of his waist**, and faithfulness the **belt around his hips**. (Isaiah 11:5 ULT)
>
> May my adversaries be **clothed with shame**; may they **wear their shame like a robe**. (Psalm 109:29 ULT)
> I will **clothe his enemies with shame**. (Psalm 132:18 ULT)
>
> I will **clothe his enemies with shame**. (Psalm 132:18a ULT)
#### A HOUSE represents a family or household (that is, the people who live and work at a family house or property)
> Now Yahweh said to Abram, “Go from your country, and from your relatives, and from your father’s **household**, to the land that I will show you. (Genesis 12:1 ULT)
>
> On that day, the king Ahasuerus gave to Esther the queen the **house** of Haman, the adversary of the Jews. (Esther 8:1a ULT)
>
> They said, “Believe in the Lord Jesus, and you will be saved, you and your **household**.” They spoke the word of the Lord to him, together with everyone in his house. Then he took them at that same hour of the night, and washed them from the blows, and he was baptized immediately—he and all those who were his. (Acts 16:31-33 ULT)
> On that day, the king Ahasuerus gave to Esther the queen the **house** of Haman, the adversary of the Jews.
> They said, “Believe in the Lord Jesus, and you will be saved, you and your **household**.” 32 They spoke the word of the Lord to him, together with everyone in his house. 33 Then the jailer took them at the same hour of the night, and washed their wounds, and he and those in his entire house were baptized immediately. (Acts 16:31-33 ULT)
In the original languages (Hebrew and Greek), the words translated here as “household” literally mean “house.” The word “house” is a metonym for the people who live in the house. This is a very common metonym in the Bible.
In the original languages (Hebrew and Greek), the words translated here as “household” literally mean “house.” The word “house” is a metonym for the people who live in the house. This is a very common metonym in the Bible.
#### A HOUSE can represent a person’s descendants or possessions.
> You have even spoken about your servant’s family for a great while to come, and have shown me future generations, Lord Yahweh! … For you, Yahweh of hosts, the God of Israel, have revealed to your servant that you will build him a house. (2 Samuel 7:19.27 ULT)
> You have even spoken about your servant’s family for a great while to come, and have shown me future generations, Lord Yahweh!… For you, Yahweh of hosts, the God of Israel, have revealed to your servant that you will build him a **house**. (2 Samuel 7:19, 27a ULT)
Here “house” represents David’s descendants.
> On that day, the king Ahasuerus gave to Esther the queen the house of Haman, the adversary of the Jews. (Esther 8:1 ULT)
> On that day, the king Ahasuerus gave to Esther the queen the **house** of Haman, the adversary of the Jews. (Esther 8:1 ULT)
Here “house” represents all of Haman’s property and possessions.
#### A HOUSE can represent a people group.
> Not a word failed from all the good things that Yahweh had spoken to the house of Israel; it all came to be. (Joshua 21:45 ULT)
> Not a word failed from all the good things that Yahweh had spoken to the **house** of Israel; it all came to be. (Joshua 21:45 ULT)
Here “house” represents a people group, the people of Israel.
#### A SNARE (that is, a SMALL TRAP for birds worked by cords) represents death
> For he will rescue you from the **snare** of the hunter. (Psalm 91:3 ULT)
> The **cords of death** surrounded me, and the **snares** of sheol confronted me. (Psalm 116:3 ULT)
> The **cords of the wicked** have **ensnared** me. (Psalm 119:61 ULT)
> The wicked have **set a snare** for me. (Psalm 119:110 ULT)
> The wicked is **ensnared** by his own actions. (Psalm 9:16 ULT)
> For he will rescue you from the **snare** of the hunter. (Psalm 91:3a ULT)
>
> The **cords of death** surrounded me, and the **snares** of sheol confronted me. (Psalm 116:3a ULT)
>
> The **cords of the wicked** have **ensnared** me. (Psalm 119:61a ULT)
>
> The wicked have **set a snare** for me. (Psalm 119:110a ULT)
>
> The wicked is **ensnared** by his own actions. (Psalm 9:16b ULT)
>
> They mingled with the nations and learned their ways and worshiped their idols, which became **a snare** to them. (Psalm 106:35-36 ULT)
In this case the snare was a persuasion to do evil, which leads to death.
#### A TENT represents a house, home, people in one’s home, descendants
> God will likewise destroy you forever; he will take you up and pluck you out of your tent. (Psalm 52:5 ULT)
> The house of the wicked will be destroyed, but the tent of the upright will flourish. (Proverbs 14:11 ULT)
> A throne will be established in covenant faithfulness, and one from David’s tent will faithfully sit there. (Isaiah 16:5 ULT)
> God will likewise destroy you forever; he will take you up and pluck you out of your **tent**. (Psalm 52:5a ULT)
>
> The house of the wicked will be destroyed, but the **tent** of the upright will flourish. (Proverbs 14:11 ULT)
>
> A throne will be established in covenant faithfulness, and one from David’s **tent** will faithfully sit there. (Isaiah 16:5a ULT)

@ -1 +1 @@
What are some examples things people make that are used as images in the Bible?
What are some examples of things people make that are used as images in the Bible?

@ -1,24 +1,20 @@
This page discusses ideas that are paired together in limited ways. (For a discussion of more complex pairings, see [Biblical Imagery - Cultural Models](../bita-part3/01.md).)
### Description
In all languages, most [metaphors](../figs-metaphor/01.md) come from broad patterns of pairings of items in which a physical Image represents an abstract Idea. For example, some languages have the pattern of pairing **height** with “much” and pairing **being low** with “not much,” so that **height** represents “much” and **being low** represents “not much.” This could be because when there is a lot of something in a pile, that pile will be high. So also if something costs a lot money, in some languages people would say that the price is **high**, or if a city has more people in it than it used to have, we might say that its number of people has gone **up**. Likewise if someone gets thinner and loses weight, we would say that their weight has gone **down**.
In all languages, most [metaphors](../figs-metaphor/01.md) come from broad patterns of pairings of items in which a physical Image represents an abstract Idea. For example, some languages have the pattern of pairing **height** with “much” and pairing **being low** with “not much,” so that **height** represents “much” and **being low** represents “not much.” This could be because when there is a lot of something in a pile, that pile will be high. So also if something costs a lot money, in some languages people would say that the price is **high**, or if a city has more people in it than it used to have, we might say that its number of people has gone **up**. Likewise if someone gets thinner and loses weight, we would say that their weight has gone **down**.
The patterns found in the Bible are often unique to the Hebrew and Greek languages. It is useful to recognize these patterns because they repeatedly present translators with the same problems on how to translate them. Once translators think through how they will handle these translation challenges, they will be ready to meet them anywhere. (See the modules about [simple metaphors](../figs-simetaphor/01.md) and [extended metaphors](../figs-exmetaphor/01.md).)
The patterns found in the Bible are often unique to the Hebrew and Greek languages. It is useful to recognize these patterns because they repeatedly present translators with the same problems of how to translate them. Once translators think through how they will handle these translation challenges, they will be ready to meet them anywhere. (See the modules about [simple metaphors](../figs-simetaphor/01.md) and [extended metaphors](../figs-exmetaphor/01.md).)
For example, one pattern of pairings in the Bible is of WALKING representing “behaving” and a PATH representing a kind of behavior. In Psalm 1:1, to “walk” in the advice of the wicked represents doing what wicked people say to do.
> Blessed is the man who does not **walk** in the advice of the wicked (Psalm 1:1 ULT)
This pattern is also seen in Psalm 119:32 where running in the path of God’s commands represents doing what God commands. Since running is more intense than walking, the idea of running here might give the idea of doing this whole-heartedly.
> Blessed is the man who does not **walk** in the advice of the wicked. (Psalm 1:1 ULT)
> I will **run in the path** of your commandments. (Psalm 119:32 ULT)
This pattern is also seen in Psalm 119:32 where running in the path of God’s commands represents doing what God commands. Since running is more intense than walking, the idea of running here might give the idea of doing this wholeheartedly.
> I will **run in the path** of your commandments. (Psalm 119:32a ULT)
#### Reasons this is a translation Issue
#### Reasons This Is a Translation Issue
These patterns present three challenges to anyone who wants to identify them:
@ -28,7 +24,7 @@ These patterns present three challenges to anyone who wants to identify them:
In 1 Kings 7:50, a lamp trimmer is a tool for trimming the wick on an ordinary lamp. In 2 Samuel 21:17 the lamp of Israel represents King David’s life. When his men were concerned that he might “put out the lamp of Israel” they were concerned that he might be killed.
> The cups, **lamp** trimmers, basins, spoons, and incense burners were all made of pure gold. (1 Kings 7:50 ULT)
> Solomon also had made the cups, lamp trimmers, basins, spoons, and incense burners, all of which were made of pure gold. (1 Kings 7:50a ULT)
> Ishbibenob…intended to kill David. But Abishai the son of Zeruiah rescued David, attacked the Philistine, and killed him. Then the men of David swore to him, saying, “You must not go to battle anymore with us, so that you do not put out the **lamp** of Israel.” (2 Samuel 21:16-17 ULT)

@ -1,10 +1,8 @@
Some very common [metonymies](../figs-metonymy/01.md) from the Bible are listed below in alphabetical order. The word in all capital letters identifies an Image that represents an Idea. The specific word of the Image may not appear in every verse that uses the Image, but the text will communicate somehow the concept of the Image.
#### A CUP or BOWL represents what is inside it
> my **cup** runs over. (Psalm 23:5 ULT)
> My **cup** runs over. (Psalm 23:5b ULT)
There is so much in the cup that it runs over the top of the cup.
@ -15,50 +13,48 @@ People do not drink cups. They drink what is in the cup.
#### A LOCATION (city, nation, etc.) represents the people who live in or near that place
> Then Mordecai went out from before the face of the king in a garment of royalty of blue and white, with a great crown of gold and a robe of fine linen and purple, and **the city of Susa** cheered and rejoiced. (Esther 8:15 ULT)
>
> So as for me, should I not feel troubled about **Nineveh, the great city **… (Jonah 4:11a ULT)
> So as for me, should I not feel troubled about **Nineveh, the great city**… (Jonah 4:11a ULT)
#### The MEMORY OF A PERSON means [his descendants]
#### The MEMORY OF A PERSON means \[his descendants\]
The memory of a person represents his descendants, because they are the ones who should remember and honor him. When the Bible says that someone’s memory dies, it means that either he will not have any descendants, or his descendants will all die.
> You terrified the nations with your battle cry;
> You have rebuked the nations;
> you have destroyed the wicked;
> you have blotted out **their memory** forever.
> The enemy crumbled like ruins
> when you overthrew their cities.
> All **remembrance of them** has perished. (Psalm 9:5-6 ULT)
> **His memory** will perish from the earth (Job 18:17 ULT)
> Yahweh is against evildoers,
> in order to wipe out **their memory** from the earth. (Psalm 34:16 ULT)
>
> **His memory** will perish from the earth. (Job 18:17a ULT)
>
> The face of Yahweh is against those who do evil, to cut off **the memory of them** from the earth. (Psalm 34:16 ULT)
#### ONE PERSON means [a group of people]
#### ONE PERSON means \[a group of people\]
> For **the wicked person** boasts of his deepest desires;
> he blesses the greedy and insults Yahweh. (Psalm 10:3 ULT)
This does not refer to a particular wicked person, but to wicked people in general.
#### A PERSON’S NAME means [his descendants]
#### A PERSON’S NAME means \[his descendants\]
> Gad—raiders will attack him, but he will attack them at their heels.
> Asher’s food will be rich, and he will provide royal delicacies.
> Naphtali is a doe let loose; he will have beautiful fawns. (Genesis 49:19-21 ULT)
> **Gad**—raiders will attack him, but he will attack them at their heels.
> **Asher’s** food will be rich, and he will provide royal delicacies.
> **Naphtali** is a doe let loose; he will have beautiful fawns. (Genesis 49:19-21 ULT)
The names Gad, Asher, and Naphtali refer not only to those men, but to their descendants.
#### A PERSON means [himself and the people with him]
#### A PERSON means \[himself and the people with him\]
> It came about that when Abram entered into Egypt, the Egyptians saw that Sarai was very beautiful. (Genesis 12:14 ULT)
> It came about that when \*\*Abram\*\* entered into Egypt, the Egyptians saw that Sarai was very beautiful. (Genesis 12:14 ULT)
Here when it says “Abram” it represents Abram and all the people traveling with him. The focus was on Abram.
#### PIERCING means [killing]
#### PIERCING means \[killing\]
> His hand **pierced** the fleeing serpent. (Job 26:13 ULT)
> His hand **pierced** the fleeing serpent. (Job 26:13b ULT)
This means that he killed the serpent.
@ -66,8 +62,8 @@ This means that he killed the serpent.
“Those who pierced him” refers to those who killed Jesus.
#### SINS (or INIQUITY) means [punishment for wrongdoing]
#### SINS (or INIQUITY) means \[punishment for wrongdoing\]
> Yahweh has placed on him the **iniquity** of us all (Isaiah 53:6 ULT)
> Yahweh has placed on him the **iniquity** of us all (Isaiah 53:6b ULT)
This means that Yahweh placed on him the punishment that should have gone to all of us.

@ -1,4 +1,3 @@
### Description
Cultural models are mental images that the people of a culture use to think about and to talk about certain aspects of life or behavior. For example, Americans often think of many things, even marriage and friendship, as if they were machines. Americans might say “His marriage is breaking down” or “Their friendship is going full speed ahead.” In this example, human relationships are modeled as a MACHINE. One can say that cultural models are [complex metaphors](../figs-cometaphor/01.md) that are commonly used by people of a particular culture.
@ -7,46 +6,46 @@ Some common cultural models found in the Bible are listed below. First there are
#### God is modeled as a KING
> For God is the **King** over all the earth; (Psalm 47:7 ULT)
> For God is the **King** over all the earth. (Psalm 47:7a ULT)
>
> For the **kingdom** is Yahweh’s;
> he is the **ruler** over the nations. (Psalm 22:28 ULT)
>
> Your **throne**, God, is forever and ever;
> a **scepter** of justice is the scepter of your **kingdom**. (Psalm 45:6 ULT)
>
> This is what Yahweh says,
> “Heaven is my **throne**, and the earth is my **footstool**. (Isaiah 66:1 ULT)
> “Heaven is my **throne**, and the earth is my **footstool**. (Isaiah 66:1a ULT)
>
> God **reigns** over the nations;
> God sits on his holy **throne**.
> The **princes** of the peoples have gathered together
> to the people of the God of Abraham;
> for the **shields** of the earth belong to God;
> he is greatly exalted. (Psalm 47:8-9 ULT)
> he is greatly \*\*exalted\*\*. (Psalm 47:8-9 ULT)
#### God is modeled as a WARRIOR
> Yahweh is a **warrior**; (Exodus 15:3 ULT)
> Yahweh will go out as a **warrior**; he will proceed as a **man of war**. He will stir up his zeal.
> Yahweh is a **warrior**. (Exodus 15:3a ULT)
>
> Yahweh will go out as a **warrior**;  as a \*\*man of war\*\* he will stir up his zeal..
> He will shout, yes, he will roar his **battle cries**; he will **show his enemies his power**. (Isaiah 42:13 ULT)
>
> Your right hand, Yahweh, is **glorious in power**;
> your right hand, Yahweh, **has shattered the enemy**. (Exodus 15:6 ULT)
>
> But **God will shoot them**;
> suddenly they will be **wounded with his arrows**. (Psalm 65:7 ULT)
> For you will turn them back; **you will draw your bow** before them. (Psalm 21:12 ULT)
> suddenly they will be **wounded with his arrows**. (Psalm 64:7 ULT)
>
> For you will turn them back; **you will draw your bow** before them. (Psalm 21:12 ULT)
#### A leader is modeled as a SHEPHERD and those he leads are modeled as SHEEP
> Then all the tribes of Israel came to David at Hebron and said, “Look…when Saul was king over us, it was you who led the Israelite army. Yahweh said to you, ‘You will **shepherd** my people Israel, and you will become ruler over Israel.’“ (2 Samuel 5:1-2 ULT)
> “Woe to the **shepherds** who destroy and scatter the **sheep** of my **pasture**—this is Yahweh’s declaration.” (Jeremiah 23:1 ULT)
> Therefore be careful about yourselves, and about all the **flock** of which the Holy Spirit has made you overseers. Be careful to **shepherd** the assembly of the Lord, which he purchased with his own blood. 29I know that after my departure, vicious wolves will enter in among you, and not spare the **flock**. I know that from even among your own selves some men shall come and say corrupt things, in order to draw away the disciples after them. (Acts 20:28-30 ULT)
>
> “Woe to the **shepherds** who destroy and scatter the **sheep** of my **pasture**—this is Yahweh’s declaration.” (Jeremiah 23:1 ULT)
>
> Guard yourselves and all the **flock** of which the Holy Spirit has made you overseers. Be careful to **shepherd** the church of God, which he purchased with his own blood. I know that after my departure, vicious wolves will come in among you, not sparing the **flock**. Even among you yourselves, men will come speaking perverse things which draw away the disciples after them. (Acts 20:28-30 ULT)
#### Life is modeled as BLOOD
@ -56,9 +55,9 @@ In this model, the blood of a person or an animal represents its life.
If blood is spilled or shed, someone has been killed.
> Whoever **sheds man’s blood**, by man will his **blood be shed**, (Genesis 9:6 ULT)
> In this way, this person would not die by the hand of the one who wanted to avenge **the blood that was shed**, until the accused person would first stand before the assembly. (Joshua 20:9 ULT)
> Whoever **sheds man’s blood**, by man will his **blood be shed**. (Genesis 9:6a ULT)
>
> In this way, this person would not die by the hand of the one who wanted to avenge **the blood that was shed**, until the accused person would first stand before the assembly. (Joshua 20:9b ULT)
If blood cries out, nature itself is crying out for vengeance on a person who killed someone. (This also includes personification, because the blood is pictured as someone that can cry out. See: [Personification](../figs-personification/01.md))
@ -66,37 +65,36 @@ If blood cries out, nature itself is crying out for vengeance on a person who ki
#### A country is modeled as a WOMAN, and its gods are modeled as HER HUSBAND
> It came about, as soon as Gideon was dead, the people of Israel turned again and **prostituted themselves** by worshiping the Baals. They made Baal Berith their god. (Judges 8:33 ULT)
> Now it happened that when Gideon had died, the sons of Israel turned back again and **pursued adulterously** after the Baals. They made Baal-Berith for themselves as a god. (Judges 8:33 ULT)
#### The nation of Israel is modeled as GOD’S SON
> When Israel was a young man I loved him, and I called **my son** out of Egypt. (Hosea 11:1 ULT)
> When Israel was a young man I loved him, and I called **my son** out of Egypt. (Hosea 11:1 ULT)
#### The sun is modeled as BEING IN A CONTAINER when it is not visible
> Yet their words go out over all the earth and their speech to the end of the world. He has pitched **a tent for the sun** among them. The sun is like a bridegroom coming out of **his chamber** and like a strong man who rejoices when he runs his race. (Psalm 19:4-5 ULT)
Psalm 110 pictures the sun as being in the womb before it comes out in the morning.
> from **the womb** of the dawn your youth will be to you like the dew. (Psalm 110:3 ULT)
> From **the womb** of the dawn your youth will be to you like the dew. (Psalm 110:3b ULT)
#### Things that can move fast are modeled as having WINGS
This is especially true of things that move in the air or the sky.
The sun is modeled as a disc with wings, which allow it to “fly” through the air from east to west during the daytime. In Psalm 139, “the wings of the morning” refers to the sun. In Malachi 4 God called himself the “sun of righteousness” and he spoke of the sun as having wings.
The sun is modeled as a disc with wings which allow it to “fly” through the air from east to west during the daytime. In Psalm 139, “the wings of the morning” refers to the sun. In Malachi 4 God called himself the “sun of righteousness” and he spoke of the sun as having wings.
> If I fly away on **the wings of the morning** and go to live in the uttermost parts across the sea… (Psalm 139:9 ULT)
> If I fly away on **the wings of the morning** and go to live in the uttermost parts across the sea … (Psalm 139:9 ULT)
> But for you who fear my name, the sun of righteousness will rise with healing **in its wings**. (Malachi 4:2 ULT)
The wind moves quickly and is modeled as having wings.
> He was seen flying on the **wings of the wind**. (2 Sam. 22:11 ULT)
> He was seen on the **wings of the wind**. (2 Sam. 22:11b ULT)
> He rode on a cherub and flew; he glided on the **wings of the wind**. (Psalm 18:10 ULT)
> you walk on the **wings of the wind** (Psalm 104:3 ULT)
#### Futility is modeled as something that the WIND can blow away
@ -107,15 +105,16 @@ Psalm 1 and Job 27 show that wicked people are worthless and will not live long.
> The wicked are not so,
> but are instead **like the chaff that the wind drives away**. (Psalm 1:4 ULT)
> **The east wind carries him away**, and he leaves;
> **it sweeps him out of his place**. (Job 27:21 ULT)
The writer of Ecclesiastes says that everything is worthless.
> **Like a vapor of mist**,
> "**Like a vapor of mist**,
> **like a breeze in the wind**,
> everything vanishes, leaving many questions.
> What profit does mankind gain from all the work that they labor at under the sun? (Ecclesiastes 1:2-3 ULT)
> What profit does mankind gain from all the work that they labor at under the sun?" (Ecclesiastes 1:2-3 ULT)
In Job 30:15, Job complains that his honor and prosperity are gone.
@ -128,21 +127,20 @@ In Job 30:15, Job complains that his honor and prosperity are gone.
When there was a war between nations, people believed that the gods of those nations were also at war.
> This happened while the Egyptians were burying all their firstborn, those whom Yahweh had killed among them, for **he also inflicted punishment on their gods**. (Numbers 33:4 ULT)
> And what nation is like your people Israel, the one nation on earth whom you, God, went and rescued for yourself?…You drove out nations **and their gods** from before your people, whom you rescued from Egypt. (2 Samuel 7:23 ULT)
> The servants of the king of Aram said to him, “**Their god is a god of the hills. That is why they were stronger than we were**. But now let us fight against them in the plain, and surely there we will be stronger than they.” (1 Kings 20:23 ULT)
> And what nation is like your people Israel, the one nation on earth whom you, God, went and rescued for yourself? … You drove out nations **and their gods** from before your people, whom you rescued from Egypt. (2 Samuel 7:23 ULT)
> The servants of the king of Aram said to him, “**Their god is a god of the hills. That is why they were stronger than we were**. But now let us fight against them in the plain, and surely there we will be stronger than they are.” (1 Kings 20:23 ULT)
#### Constraints in life are modeled as PHYSICAL BOUNDARIES
The verses below are not about real physical boundaries but about difficulties or the lack of difficulties in life.
> He has built **a wall** around me, and I cannot escape. He has made my shackles heavy. (Lamentations 3:7 ULT)
> He has blocked my path with **walls of hewn stone**; every way I take is crooked. (Lamentations 3:9 ULT)
> **Measuring lines** have been laid for me in pleasant places (Psalm 16:6 ULT)
> He blocked my path with **a wall of hewn stone**; he made my paths crooked. (Lamentations 3:9 ULT)
> **Measuring lines** have been laid for me in pleasant places. (Psalm 16:6a ULT)
#### Dangerous places are modeled as NARROW PLACES
@ -152,18 +150,17 @@ In Psalm 4 David asks God to rescue him.
> give me room **when I am hemmed in**.
> Have mercy on me and listen to my prayer. (Psalm 4:1 ULT)
#### A distressing situation is modeled as a WILDERNESS
When Job was distressed because of all the sad things that happened to him, he spoke as if he were in a wilderness. Jackals and ostriches are animals that live in the wilderness.
> My heart is troubled and does not rest;
> days of affliction have come on me.
> I go about with darkened skin but not because of the sun;
> I have gone about like one who was living in the dark, but not because of the sun;
> I stand up in the assembly and cry for help.
> I am **a brother to jackals**,
> **a companion of ostriches**. (Job 30:27-29 ULT)
#### Wellbeing is modeled as PHYSICAL CLEANLINESS, and evil is modeled as PHYSICAL DIRTINESS
Leprosy is a disease. If a person had it, he was said to be unclean.

@ -3,38 +3,38 @@ Some common [metonymies](../figs-metonymy/01.md) and [metaphors](../figs-metapho
#### LIGHT represents moral righteousness, DARKNESS represents moral wickedness
> Woe to those **who call evil good, and good evil**; **who represent darkness as light, and light as darkness**; who represent bitter as sweet, and sweet as bitter! (Isaiah 5:20 ULT)
>
> But if your eye is **bad**, your whole body is **full of darkness**. Therefore, if the light that is in you is actually **darkness**, how great is that **darkness**! (Matthew 6:23 ULT)
#### LIGHT or SWEETNESS represents pleasant feelings, DARKNESS or BITTERNESS represents unpleasant feelings
> Truly the **light is sweet**, and it is a **pleasant thing** for the eyes to see the sun. (Ecclesiastes 11:7 ULT)
>
> I am a man who has seen **misery** under the rod of Yahweh’s fury. He drove me away and caused me to walk in **darkness** rather than light. (Lamentations 3:1-2 ULT)
#### LIGHT represents wisdom, DARKNESS represents foolishness
> Then I began to understand that **wisdom has advantages over folly**, just as **light is better than darkness**. (Ecclesiastes 2:13 ULT)
>
> They are **darkened in their understanding**, being alienated from the life of God because of the **ignorance** that is in them, because of the **hardness of their hearts**. (Ephesians 4:18 ULT)
>
> For with you is the fountain of life; **in your light we will see light**. (Psalm 36:9 ULT)
#### LIGHT or FIRE represents life
> They say, ‘Hand over the man who struck his brother, so that we may put him to death, to pay for the life of his brother whom he killed.’ And so they would also destroy the heir. Thus they will put out the **burning coal** that I have left, and they will leave for my husband neither name nor descendant on the surface of the earth. (2 Samuel 14:7 ULT)
> You must not go to battle anymore with us, so that you do not put out the **lamp of Israel**. (2 Samuel 21:17 ULT)
> I will give one tribe to Solomon’s son, so that David my servant may always have **a lamp** before me in Jerusalem. (1 Kings 11:36 ULT)
> Nevertheless for David’s sake, Yahweh his God gave him **a lamp** in Jerusalem by raising up his son after him in order to strengthen Jerusalem. (1 Kings 15:4 ULT)
> They say, ‘Give into our hand the man who struck his brother, so that we may put him to death, to pay for the life of his brother whom he killed.’ And so they would also destroy the heir. Thus they will put out the **burning coal** that I have left, and they will leave for my husband neither name nor descendant on the surface of the earth. (2 Samuel 14:7b ULT)
>
> "You must not go to battle anymore with us, so that you do not put out the **lamp of Israel**." (2 Samuel 21:17b ULT)
>
> I will give one tribe to Solomon’s son, so that David my servant may always have **a lamp** before me in Jerusalem. (1 Kings 11:36a ULT)
>
> Nevertheless for David’s sake, Yahweh his God gave him **a lamp** in Jerusalem by raising up his son after him in order to strengthen Jerusalem. (1 Kings 15:4 ULT)
>
> Indeed, **the light** of the wicked person will be put out; **the spark of his fire** will not shine. **The light** will be dark in his tent; **his lamp** above him will be put out. (Job 18:5-6 ULT)
> For you give **light to my lamp**; Yahweh my God **lights up my darkness**. (Psalm 18:28 ULT)
> A **dimly burning wick** he will not quench. (Isaiah 42:3 ULT)
>
> For you give **light to my lamp**; Yahweh my God **lights up my darkness**. (Psalm 18:28 ULT)
>
> A **dimly burning wick** he will not quench. (Isaiah 42:3b ULT)
#### DARKNESS or SHADOW represents death
@ -42,101 +42,88 @@ Some common [metonymies](../figs-metonymy/01.md) and [metaphors](../figs-metapho
#### LIGHT OF THE FACE represents smiling (that is, an attitude of grace or favor)
> Yahweh, lift up the **light of your face** on us. (Psalm 4:6 ULT)
> Yahweh, lift up the **light of your face** on us. (Psalm 4:6b ULT)
>
> For they did not obtain the land for their possession by their own sword,
> neither did their own arm save them;
> but your right hand, your arm, and the **light of your face**,
> because you were favorable to them. (Psalm 44:3 ULT)
> they did not reject the **light of my face**. (Job 29:24 ULT)
> Yahweh, they walk in the **light of your face**. (Psalm 89:15 ULT)
>
> they did not reject the **light of my face**. (Job 29:24b ULT)
>
> Yahweh, they walk in the **light of your face**. (Psalm 89:15b ULT)
#### FIRE represents extreme feelings, particularly love or anger
> Because iniquity will be increased, the love of many will **be extinguished**. (Matthew 24:12 ULT)
> Surging waters cannot **quench** love. (Song of Songs 8:7 ULT)
> For **a fire is kindled by my anger** and **is burning** to the lowest sheol. (Deuteronomy 32:22 ULT)
> Therefore **the anger of Yahweh was set on fire** against Israel. (Judges 3:8 ULT)
> Because lawlessness will increase, the love of many will **grow cold**. (Matthew 24:12 ULT)
>
> Surging waters cannot **quench** love. (Song of Songs 8:7a ULT)
>
> For **a fire is kindled by my anger** and **is burning** to the lowest Sheol. (Deuteronomy 32:22a ULT)
>
> Therefore **the anger of Yahweh blazed** against Israel. (Judges 3:8a ULT)
>
> When Yahweh heard this, **he was angry**; so **his fire burned** against Jacob, and **his anger** attacked Israel. (Psalm 78:21 ULT)
#### A WIDE SPACE reperesents safety, security, and ease
> They came against me on the day of my distress but Yahweh was my support.
> He set me free in **a wide open place**; he saved me because he was pleased with me. (Psalms 18:18-19 ULT)
>
> You have made **a wide place** for my feet beneath me,
> so my feet have not slipped. (2 Samuel 22:37 ULT)
>
> You made people ride over our heads;
> we went through fire and water,
> but you brought us out into **a spacious place**. (Psalms 66:12 ULT)
#### A NARROW SPACE represents danger or difficulties
> Answer me when I call, God of my righteousness;
> give me room when **I am hemmed in**.
> Have mercy on me and listen to my prayer. (Psalm 4:1 ULT)
>
> For a prostitute is a deep pit,
> and an immoral woman is **a narrow well**. (Proverbs 23:27 ULT)
#### WATER or LIQUID represents a moral or emotional quality (attitude, spirit, life)
> Yahweh has burst through my enemies before me like a bursting **flood of water**. (2 Samuel 5:20 ULT)
> He will make a full end to his enemies with an overwhelming **flood**. (Nahum 1:8 ULT)
> My heart **drips** because of sadness. (Psalm 119:28 ULT)
> I am being **poured out like water**. (Psalm 22:14 ULT)
> It will come about afterward that I will **pour out** my Spirit on all flesh. (Joel 2:28 ULT)
> My God, my soul has **melted** within me. (Psalm 42:6 ULT)
> For it is great, the anger of Yahweh that has been **poured out** on us. (2 Chronicles 34:21 ULT)
>
> He will make a complete end to his enemies with an overwhelming **flood**. (Nahum 1:8a ULT)
>
> I am being **poured out like water**. (Psalm 22:14a ULT)
>
> It will come about afterward that I will **pour out** my Spirit on all flesh. (Joel 2:28a ULT)
>
> For it is great, the anger of Yahweh that has been **poured out** on us. (2 Chronicles 34:21b ULT)
#### FLOODING WATER represents disaster
> I have come into **deep waters**, where the **floods flow** over me. (Psalm 69:2 ULT)
> Do not let the **floods of water** overwhelm me. (Psalm 69:15 ULT)
> Reach out your hand from above; rescue me out of **many waters** from the hands of these foreigners. (Psalm 144:7 ULT)
> I have come into **deep waters**, where the **floods flow** over me. (Psalm 69:2b ULT)
>
> Do not let the **floods of water** overwhelm me. (Psalm 69:15a ULT)
>
> Reach out your hand from above; rescue me out of **many waters** from the hands of foreigners. (Psalm 144:7 ULT)
#### A FOUNTAIN or SPRING OF WATER represents the origin or source of something
> The fear of Yahweh is a **fountain of life**. (Proverbs 14:27 ULT)
> The fear of Yahweh is a **fountain of life**. (Proverbs 14:27a ULT)
>
> For with you is the **fountain of life**; in your light we will see light. (Psalm 36:9 ULT)
#### LIQUID represents what someone says
> A quarreling wife is a constant **dripping of water**. (Proverbs 19:13 ULT)
> His lips are lilies, **dripping myrrh**. (Song of Songs 5:13 ULT)
> My groaning is **poured out like water**. (Job 3:24 ULT)
> The words of a man’s mouth are **deep waters**; the **fountain of wisdom** is a flowing stream. (Proverbs 18:3 ULT)
> A quarreling wife is a constant **dripping of water**. (Proverbs 19:13b ULT)
>
> His lips are lilies, **dripping myrrh**. (Song of Songs 5:13b ULT)
>
> My groaning is **poured out like water**. (Job 3:24b ULT)
>
> The words of a man’s mouth are **deep waters**; the **fountain of wisdom** is a flowing stream. (Proverbs 18:4 ULT)
#### A ROCK represents salvation or protection
> Who is a **rock** except our God? (Psalm 18:31 ULT)
> Yahweh, **my rock**, and my redeemer. (Psalm 19:14 ULT)
> Who is a **rock** except our God? (Psalm 18:31b ULT)
>
> Yahweh, **my rock**, and my redeemer. (Psalm 19:14b ULT)

@ -1,55 +1,49 @@
Some common [metonymies](../figs-metonymy/01.md) and [metaphors](../figs-metaphor/01.md) from the Bible involving plants are listed below in alphabetical order. The word in all capital letters identifies an Image which represents an Idea. The specific word of the Image may not appear in every verse that uses the Image, but the text will communicate somehow the concept of the Image.
Some common [metonymies](../figs-metonymy/01.md) and [metaphors](../figs-metaphor/01.md) from the Bible involving plants are listed below in alphabetical order. The word in all capital letters identifies an Image which represents an Idea. The specific word of the Image may not appear in every verse that uses the Image, but the text will communicate somehow the concept of the Image.
#### A BRANCH represents a person’s descendant
In the examples below, Isaiah wrote about one of Jesse’s descendants and Jeremiah wrote about one of David’s descendants.
> **A shoot** will sprout from the root of Jesse, and **a branch** out of his root will bear fruit.
> The Spirit of Yahweh will rest upon him, the spirit of wisdom and understanding. (Isaiah 11:1 ULT)
> See, days are coming—this is Yahweh’s declaration—when I will raise up for David **a righteous branch**.
> He will reign as king; he will bring prosperity and carry out justice and righteousness in the land. (Jeremiah 23:5 ULT)
> **A shoot** will sprout from the root of Jesse, and **a branch** out of his root will bear fruit. (Isaiah 11:1 ULT)
>
> See, the days are coming—this is Yahweh’s declaration—when I will raise up for David a righteous **branch**. He will reign as king; he will act wisely and cause justice and righteousness in the land. (Jeremiah 23:5 ULT)
In Job when it says “his branch will be cut off,” it means that he will not have any descendants.
> His roots will be dried up beneath;
> above will **his branch be cut off**.
> His memory will perish from the earth;
> he will have no name in the street. (Job 18:17 ULT)
> he will have no name in the street. (Job 18:16-17 ULT)
#### A PLANT represents a person
> God will likewise destroy you forever; he will…**root you out** of the land of the living. (Psalm 52:5 ULT)
#### A PLANT represents an emotion or attitude
#### A PLANT represents actions or behaviors
Just as planting one kind of seeds results in that kind of plant growing, behaving in one way results in that kind of consequence.
The emotion or attitude in the verses is underlined below.
> Sow **righteousness** for yourselves, and reap the fruit of **covenant faithfulness**. (Hosea 10:12 ULT)
> Based on what I have observed, those who plow **iniquity** and sow **trouble**, reap the same. (Job 4:8 ULT)
> For the people sow **the wind** and reap **the whirlwind**. (Hosea 8:7 ULT)
> You have turned…the fruit of **righteousness** into bitterness. (Amos 6:12 ULT)
> What fruit then did you have at that time of the things of which you are now **ashamed**? (Romans 6:21 ULT)
The action or behavior in the verses is marked in bold below.
> **Sow righteousness** for yourselves, and **reap the fruit** of covenant faithfulness. (Hosea 10:12a ULT)
>
> According to what I have seen, those who **plow iniquity** and **sow trouble reap it**. (Job 4:8 ULT)
>
> For the people **sow the wind and reap the whirlwind**. (Hosea 8:7a ULT)
>
> … what **fruit then did you have** at that time of the things of which you are now ashamed? (Romans 6:21a ULT)
#### A SEED represents the descendant(s) of a person or group of people
> …the Jews set up and accepted for themselves, and for their **seed**, and for all those who unite themselves to them (and it will not pass away) to be making these two days according to their writing, and according to their appointed time every year by year. (Esther 9:27 ULT)
> The Jews set up and accepted for themselves, and for their **seed**, and for all those who unite themselves to them (and it will not pass away) to be making these two days according to their writing, and according to their appointed time every year by year. (Esther 9:27 ULT)
#### A TREE represents a person
> He will be like **a tree planted** by the streams of water that **produces its fruit in its season**, whose **leaves do not wither**; whatever he does will prosper. (Psalm 1:3 ULT)
> I have seen the wicked and terrifying person spread out **like a green tree in its native soil**. (Psalm 37:35 ULT)
> I am **like a green olive tree** in God’s house. (Psalm 52:8 ULT)
>
> I have seen the wicked and terrifying person spread out **like a green tree in its native soil**. (Psalm 37:35 ULT)
>
> … I am **like a green olive tree** in God’s house. (Psalm 52:8a ULT)
#### A TREE represents something made of wood (such as a pole or platform)

@ -1 +1 @@
What are some examples of plants that are used as images in the Bible?
What are some examples of how plants are used as images in the Bible?

@ -2,7 +2,7 @@
Before beginning a translation of the Bible, the translation committee needs to discuss and agree on the style that they want the translation to have. The following topics should be included in the discussion.
1. **Form** – Should the translation follow the form of the source language so that people who are used to hearing and reading the Bible in the source language will feel more comfortable with it, or should the translation follow the form of the target language, and be easier to understand? We recommend that, in most cases, it is better if the translation follows the form of the target language so that people can understand it better. This means that it will be harder to compare with the source language Bible because it will put things in a different order and use different kinds of expressions that are clear and natural in the target language. But when a Bible is clear and natural, many people will want to read it and hear it, not just the people who have been part of the church for many years.
1. **Form** – Should the translation follow the form of the source language so that people who are used to hearing and reading the Bible in the source language will feel more comfortable with it, or should the translation follow the form of the target language, and be easier to understand? In most cases we recommend that it is better if the translation follows the form of the target language so that people can understand it better. This means that it will be harder to compare with the source language Bible because it will put things in a different order and use different kinds of expressions that are clear and natural in the target language. But when a Bible is clear and natural, many people will want to read it and hear it, not just the people who have been part of the church for many years.
2. **Format** - Is this a written translation to be read from a book, or a translation to be recorded and listened to? If it is a written translation to be used in church, the people may prefer a more formal style. If it is for a recording, the people may prefer a style that is more like people talking informally.
@ -14,10 +14,10 @@ Before beginning a translation of the Bible, the translation committee needs to
6. **Audience** - The translation committee should discuss who is the audience for this translation. Is it primarily educated people, so they should use a style that uses long sentences and many borrowed words? Is it primarily for young people, or old people, for men or women? Or is it for everyone? In that case, it should use simple language so that everyone can understand it. For more on this topic, see also [Aim](../translate-aim/01.md).
7. **Footnotes** – Should the translation put explanations of difficult things in footnotes? If so, should it use many footnotes, or only for certain topics or especially difficult things? Will people understand what they are and how they work, or will they be confused by them? Instead of footnotes, would it be better to put short explanations in the text of the Bible translation? Or should the translation not include any extra explanations at all? To help in making this decision, consider how well your people understand biblical culture and such things as shepherds, fishing with nets, sailing boats, kings, ancient warfare with chariots, etc., and how much of this might need to be explained.
7. **Footnotes** – Should the translation put explanations of difficult things in footnotes? If so, should it use many footnotes, or only for certain topics or especially difficult things? Will people understand what footnotes are and how they work, or will they be confused by them? Instead of footnotes, would it be better to put short explanations in the text of the Bible translation? Or should the translation not include any extra explanations at all? To help in making this decision, consider how well your people understand biblical culture and such things as shepherds, fishing with nets, sailing boats, kings, ancient warfare with chariots, etc., and how much of this might need to be explained.
8. **Pictures** - Will pictures be used in the Bible translation? If so, how many? Pictures can be very useful for showing things that are unknown in the target culture, such as certain animals or tools or clothing. Using pictures for these things can reduce the need to explain them in footnotes.
9. **Headings** – Should the translation use section headings that summarize what each section is talking about? These can be very helpful for finding different topics. If so, what style of headings should be used? See [Headings](../../checking/headings/01.md) for examples.
9. **Headings** – Should the translation use section headings that summarize what each section is talking about? If so, what style of headings should be used? These can be very helpful for finding different topics. See [Headings](../../checking/headings/01.md) for examples.

@ -28,19 +28,19 @@ It is good if the leaders of these churches and church networks can form a commi
This committee can also choose the pastors and other leaders who will check the translation at the Accuracy and Validation stages.
When it comes time, this committee can also make decisions about the format of the translation and how it will be distributed. They can also encourage the churches to use the translated Scriptures.
When it comes time, committee members can make decisions about the format of the translation and how it will be distributed. They can also encourage the churches to use the translated Scriptures.
This committee should also plan for the maintenance of the translation after it has been translated and distributed. They may want to appoint someone to review the comments and suggestions for improvement that will come from the churches that use the translation. Door43 provides a place for people to access the translation and also to leave these kinds of comments.
This committee should also plan for the maintenance of the translation after it has been translated and distributed. The committee may want to appoint someone to review the comments and suggestions for improvement that will come from the churches that use the translation. Door43 provides a place for people to access the translation and also to leave these kinds of comments.
#### Translators
These are the people who will do the work of making the translation drafts. They will be appointed by the Translation Committee. They need to be people who are native speakers of the target language, who can read the source language (the Gateway Language) very well, and who are respected in the community for their Christian character. For more details about these things, see [Translator Qualifications](../qualifications/01.md).
As well as making the first drafts, these people will form the core of the translation team that will check each other’s work, check the translation with the language community, and perform the [Translation Words](../../checking/important-term-check/01.md) and [Translation Notes](../../checking/trans-note-check/01.md) checks. After each review or checking session, these translators will be responsible to make the changes to the translation that are necessary so that it communicates what it should in the best way. So they will revise the translation many, many times.
Besides making the first drafts, these people will form the core of the translation team that will check each other’s work, check the translation with the language community, and perform the [Translation Words](../../checking/important-term-check/01.md) and [Translation Notes](../../checking/trans-note-check/01.md) checks. After each review or checking session, these translators will be responsible to make the changes to the translation that are necessary so that it communicates what it should in the best way. So they will revise the translation many, many times.
#### Typists
If the translators themselves are not typing the translation draft into a computer or tablet, then someone else on the team needs to do this. This needs to be someone who can type without making a lot of errors. This person also needs to know how to use punctuation marks correctly and consistently. This person may also need to type the revisions and corrections to the translation after each round of checking.
If the translators themselves are not typing the translation draft into a computer or tablet, then someone else on the team must do this. This needs to be someone who can type without making a lot of errors. This person also needs to know how to use punctuation marks correctly and consistently. This person may also need to type the revisions and corrections to the translation after each round of checking.
#### Translation Testers
@ -48,11 +48,11 @@ Some people need to test the translation with members of the language community
#### Accuracy Checkers
The people who are selected to [check the translation for accuracy](../../checking/accuracy-check/01.md) should be people who already know the Bible well in the source language. They should be able to read well in the source language. They will be comparing the translation to the source Bible, to make sure that the translation communicates everything that is in the source Bible. They should be people who are interested in the translation work and who have time to do a good job of checking. It is good if these people can include members of the different church groups who speak the target language and who will use the translation.
The people who are selected to [check the translation for accuracy](../../checking/accuracy-check/01.md) should be people who already know the Bible well in the source language. They should be able to read well in the source language. They will be comparing the translation to the source Bible, to make sure that the translation communicates everything that is in the source Bible. They should be people who are interested in the translation work and who have time to do a good job of checking. It is best for accuracy checkers to include members of the different church groups who speak the target language and who will use the translation.
#### Validation Checkers
Those who do [Validation Checking](../../checking/level3/01.md) should be leaders of groups of churches, or respected very widely in the language area. It is important that these people approve of the translation so that it will be accepted and used in the churches. Since many of these people are very busy, they may choose to appoint others whom they trust to check the translation for them. Also, it may work best to send different books or chapters to different people, and not burden one or two people with checking the whole translation.
Those who do [Validation Checking](../../checking/level3/01.md) should be leaders of groups of churches or people who are very widely respected in the language area. It is important that these people approve of the translation so that it will be accepted and used in the churches. Since many of these people are very busy, they may choose to appoint others whom they trust to check the translation for them. Also, it may work best to send different books or chapters to different people, and not burden one or two people with checking the whole translation.
#### Tech Support
@ -74,6 +74,6 @@ given team cannot be prescribed in advance. It might even change over time, but
1. We work with the leaders of the church networks to ensure that they understand the skills and functions needed on their translation team, as described in unfoldingWord® Translation Academy.
1. We help them to identify an initial team composition, based on the skills and contextual reality of their team (e.g., size of the team, theological ability, translation experience, language skill, geographic distribution, relationship dynamics, etc.). Their team may be small, with several skills being accomplished by the same person. Or the team may be large (in some cases as many as 25 full-time translators and hundreds of volunteers), with many people providing the same skill in an overlapping and intentionally redundant manner. Regardless of the structure and size of the team that is needed in a given context, the combined roles on any team must provide the combination of skills needed to achieve excellence in Bible translation.
2. We help them to identify an initial team composition based on the skills and contextual reality of their team (e.g., size of the team, theological ability, translation experience, language skill, geographic distribution, relationship dynamics, etc.). Their team may be small, with several skills being provided by the same person. Or the team may be large (in some cases as many as 25 full-time translators and hundreds of volunteers), with many people providing the same skill in an overlapping and intentionally redundant manner. Regardless of the structure and size of the team that is needed in a given context, the combined roles on any team must provide the combination of skills needed to achieve excellence in Bible translation.
1. The team begins working together on an initial translation project (we recommend Open Bible Stories) and observes the effectiveness of their team’s configuration. As needed, adjustments to the team structure are made to improve efficiency and training is provided to increase skill and effectiveness.
3. The team begins working together on an initial translation project (we recommend Open Bible Stories) and observes the effectiveness of their team’s configuration. As needed, adjustments to the team structure are made to improve efficiency, and training is provided to increase skill and effectiveness.

@ -1,31 +1,31 @@
Normally a speaker refers to himself as “I” and the person he is speaking to as “you.” Sometimes in the Bible a speaker refers to himself or to the person he is speaking to with terms other than “I” or “you.”
### Description
* **First person** - This is how a speaker normally refers to himself. English uses the pronouns “I” and “we.” (Also: me, my, mine; us, our, ours)
* **Second person** - This is how a speaker normally refers to the person or people he is speaking to. English uses the pronoun “you.” (Also: your, yours)
* **Third person** - This is how a speaker refers to someone else. English uses the pronouns “he,” “she,” “it” and “they.” (Also: him, his, her, hers, its; them, their, theirs) Noun phrases like “the man” or “the woman” are also third person.
* First person - This is how a speaker normally refers to himself. English uses the pronouns “I” and “we.” (Also: me, my, mine; us, our, ours)
* Second person - This is how a speaker normally refers to the person or people he is speaking to. English uses the pronoun “you.” (Also: your, yours)
* Third person - This is how a speaker refers to someone else. English uses the pronouns “he,” “she,” “it,” and “they.” (Also: him, his, her, hers, its; them, their, theirs) Noun phrases like “the man” or “the woman” are also third person.
### Reason this is a Translation Issue
### Reason This Is a Translation Issue
Sometimes in the Bible a speaker uses the third person to refer to himself or to the people he is speaking to. Readers might think that the speaker was referring to someone else. They might not understand that he meant “I” or “you.”
### Examples from the Bible
Sometimes people used the third person instead of “I” or “me” to refer to themselves.
> But David said to Saul, “**Your servant** used to keep **his** father’s sheep.” (1 Samuel 17:34 ULT)
David referred to himself in the third person as “your servant” and “his.” He was calling himself Saul’s servant in order to show his humility before Saul.
David referred to himself in the third person as “your servant” and used “his.” He was calling himself Saul’s servant in order to show his humility before Saul.
> Then Yahweh answered Job out of a fierce storm and said,
> “…Do you have an arm like **God’s**? Can you thunder with a voice like **him**? (Job 40:6, 9 ULT)
> “… Do you have an arm like **God’s**? Can you thunder with a voice like **his**? (Job 40:6, 9 ULT)
God referred to himself in the third person with the words “God’s” and “him.” He did this to emphasize that he is God, and he is powerful.
God referred to himself in the third person with the words “God’s” and “his.” He did this to emphasize that he is God, and he is powerful.
Sometimes people use the third person instead of “you” or “your” to refer to the person or people they are speaking to.
> Abraham answered and said, “Look what I have done, taking it upon myself to speak to **my Lord**, even though I am only dust and ashes! (Genesis 18:27 ULT)
> Abraham answered and said, “Look, I have undertaken to speak to my Lord, even though I am only dust and ashes! (Genesis 18:27 ULT)
Abraham was speaking to the Lord, and referred to the Lord as “My Lord” rather than as “you.” He did this to show his humility before God.