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Unlocked Greek Lexicon (UGL)


An important part of our Bible translation checking software is the ability for the translators and editors to look up Greek words or phrases in a reliable lexicon. Again, we are faced with the problem that Greek lexica in the public domain are very much out of date and modern lexica are bound by copyright restrictions. In an effort to solve this difficulty we are developing our own Greek lexicon.

  • The lexicon will provide:

Glosses (English translation equivalents in one or a few words)

Definitions (explanation of what the word or phrases can mean)

Principal parts, irregular forms, etc.

Examples (examples of verses where this meaning is found in the NT or extra-biblical Hellenistic Greek corpora)

Strong's numbers for all lexical entries

  • The starting point for the lexicon will be G. Abott-Smith, A Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament , 1922.

  • The UGL will be released in versions:

The first version will be a digitized edition of Abbott-Smith, as originally published. This effort is currently in progress (see and ).

The next step will be to update the glosses and definitions in light of current Greek lexica (enumerated below).

The long-term goal is to revise the lexicon so that it is a corpus-driven advanced learner's Greek-English lexicon. For details about this approach, see Todd L. Price, Structural Lexicology and the Greek New Testament: Applying Corpus Linguistics for Word Sense Possibility Delimitation Using Collocational Indicators, Perspectives on Linguistics and Ancient Languages 6 (Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias, 2015).

  • The UGL will be linked to UGNT and UGG.

  • Volunteers are needed to:

Proofread the digitized version of Abbott-Smith to ensure that it matches the printed edition of 1922.

Proofread the digitized version of Abbott-Smith to ensure that it is properly formatted and tagged according to digital standards to be determined (e.g., OSIS, TEI XML, etc.)

Work with the Project Coordinator to update Abbott-Smith through a comparison with the corresponding lexical entry in the following lexica:

Bauer, Walter. A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. Edited by Frederick W. Danker. 3rd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000

Friberg, Timothy, Barbara Friberg, and Neva F. Miller. Analytical Lexicon to the Greek New Testament. Baker's Greek New Testament Library. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2000

Liddell, Henry George, and Robert Scott. A Greek-English Lexicon: With a Revised Supplement. Edited by Sir Henry Stuart Jones and Roderick McKenzie. 9th ed. Oxford: Clarendon, 1996

Louw, Johannes E., and Eugene A. Nida. Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament: Based on Semantic Domains. 2 vols. 2nd ed. New York: United Bible Societies, 1989

Moulton, J. H., and G. Milligan. Vocabulary of the Greek Testament. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1930

Newman, Jr., Barclay M. A Concise Greek-English Dictionary of the New Testament. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1993

  • Requirements for contributors to the Unlocked Greek Lexicon:

Agreement with our Statement of Faith:

Agreement with Translation Guidelines:

Agreement that your work will be released under a CC BY-SA ( ). See

Must have at least one year (two semesters) of NT Greek

Access to as many of the above mentioned lexica as possible (especially BDAG, Louw & Nida)

  • Preferences (though not required):

Attendance at workshop for training (5 days/1 week) how to proofread and edit UGL

Access to biblical software highly recommended (preferably BibleWorks, Logos or Accordance)

It is highly recommended that the volunteer be familiar with the following works on lexicography, although this is not required for the stage of digitizing (not updating) Abbott-Smith:

Ayto, J. R. “On Specifying Meaning: Semantic Analysis and Dictionary Definitions.”Pages 89-98 in Lexicography: Principles and Practice . Edited by R. K. K. Hartmann. ALS. London: Academic, 1983

Burkhanov, Igor. "Pragmatic Specifications: Usage Indications, Labels, Examples; Dictionaries of Style, Dictionaries of Collocations.” Pages 102-13 in A Practical Guide to Lexicography. Edited by Piet van Sterkenberg. TLRP 6. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2003

Chadwick, John. Lexicographica Graeca: Contributions to the Lexicography of Ancient Greek. Oxford: Clarendon, 1996

Geeraerts, Dirk. "Meaning and Definition.” Pages 83-93 in A Practical Guide to Lexicography. Edited by Piet van Sterkenberg. TLRP 6. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2003

Landau, Sidney I. Dictionaries: The Art and Craft of Lexicography. 2nd ed. Cambridge: CUP, 2001

Lee, John A. L. A History of New Testament Lexicography. SBG 8. New York: Peter Lang, 2003

Lee, John A. L. “The Present State of Lexicography of Ancient Greek.” Pages 66-74 in Biblical Greek Language and Lexicography: Essays in Honor of Frederick W. Danker. Edited by Bernard A. Taylor, John A. L. Lee, Peter R. Burton, and Richard E. Whitaker. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 2004.

Louw, Johannes P. “The Analysis of Meaning in Lexicography.” Filología Neotestamentaria 6, no. 12 (November 1993): 139-48

Oppentocht, Lineke, and Rik Schutz. “Design of Dictionaries.” Pages 215-27 in A Practical Guide to Lexicography. Edited by Piet van Sterkenberg. TLRP 6. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2003.

Porter, Stanley E. “Linguistic Issues in New Testament Lexicography.” Pages 49-74 in Studies in the Greek New Testament: Theory and Practice Edited by Stanley E. Porter. SBG 6. New York: Peter Lang, 1996

Wendland, E., and Eugene A. Nida. “Lexicography and Bible Translating.” Pages 1-52 in Lexicography and Translation: With Special Reference to Bible Translation. Edited by Johannes P. Louw. Cape Town: Bible Society of South Africa, 1985